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Cisco Page

Cisco

Cisco Routing Study Notes

This Page will encompass Routing study notes

<<<< This page/site is under developments >>>>

<<<<This is still a rough sketch and working on it >>>>

 

 

Title Notes

divide into section, add labs and diagrams later.

f

IPV6 study Notes

Reasons and Features of IPV6:

  • Eliminate NAT
  • IP Sec Built in
  • Simpler Headers
  • IPv4 address shortage
  • IPv4 poorly allocated, All of Asia and Africa has one" Class C" address for each country.

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  • IPV4 has 32 Bits
  • IPV6 has 128 Bits
  • IPV6 divided into 8 groups of 4 Hex characters.

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IPV6 Rules to Shorten it

  • 2 rules can be applied to shorten IPv6
  • Rule 1-- you can eliminate consecutive zeros and replace them with " :: " can only be used once.
  • Rule 2-- you can drop leading zero.

to shorten this address: 2001:0050:0000:0000:0000:0ABC:1234:99AA

Follow the above rules and you end up with this:

Shortened Version: 2001:50::ABC:1234:99AA.

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IPv4 Header: VS IPv6 Header

 

IPv4 IPv6 Header

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Type of Communication and Addresses

  1. Uni cast: one to one addressing
  2. Multi cast: one to Many
  3. Any cast: 1 to Closest.

 

  1. Link Local Scope Address: it is auto generated from Layer 2.
  2. Unique/Site Local Scope Address: this scope is no longer used, wasn't needed.
  3. Global Scope Address: is the what the used globally on the internet. Just like IPv4 public address.

 

Global Scope


 Unique / Site 

 

Link Local Scope

 

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Link Local Scope Address

FE80

Always begins with FE80, Automatically assigned.

Last 64 Bits are the interface MAC address with FFFE squeezed in the middle.

Example of MAC address: 0019:D122:DCC3

Squeeze in the middle of it FFFE: 0019:D1^^^22:DCC3

it Should look like this: 0019:D1FF:FE22:DCC3.

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Global Scope Address:

 

3 N bits

64 N bits

64 N bits

Global Routing prefix 001

Subnet ID

Interface ID

  • It has the highest 3 bits set to 001 (2000::/3)
  • Global Routing Prefix is 48 bits or less.
  • Subnet ID is comprised of whatever bits that are left over after global prefix.
  • The primary address that is expected to compromise the IPv6 Internet are from the (2001::/16) subnet.
  • IPv6 Internet addresses will start at that IP.

 

EUI-64 : when choosing this under the IP address command the interface will assign itself an IP address automatically. it is derived from the 48 bits MAC address and inserting FFFE in the middle of it.

Command: IP-address 2001:1234:abcd:5678::/ EUI-64

Will generate this:
# Show ipv6 int L0:

---- Global Uni cast address: 201:1234:abcd:5678:c202:12FF:FEdc:0 ----

( this will makes DHCP optional in IPv6 network).

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when running command # show ipv6 int brief: will replace this command in ipv4# show ip int brief.

when running the debug command you will notice these:

  • ND (neighbor Discovery) replace ARP in ipv4.
  • NS (Neighbor solicitation) PC or router soliciate a router for to request a prefix for stateless autoconfig using a source of :: and a destination of FF02::2 to router multicast address.
  • DAD (duplicate Address Detection) detect and avoid duplicate addresses.

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IPv6 Multicast addresses

  • FF02::1 all local devices
  • FF02::2 all routers
  • FF02::9 all RIP routers
  • FF02::5 all OSPF routers
  • FF02::6 all Designated routers. (DR) routers.

 

  • FF02::1:FFXX:XXXX Soliciated-node multicast on a link. Neighbor solicictation messages are sent on local link to determine link layer address. similar to ARP.
  • FF05:101 is the (NTP) All network Time protocol servers.

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Note: it is recommended to assign IPv6 address manually to router interfaces. link local address don't have a subnet mask. that is why we use "link Local" command.

Interface f0/0: IPv6 address FE80:1:2:3 link-local .

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Implementing IPv6

when implementing IPv6 you must use this command first to turn IPv6 routing on:

IPv6 unicast-routing

Implementing Static IPv6

## IPv6 unicast-routing

## IPv6 route < net/mask > < Next Hop >

## show IPv6 route

notice the L. next to the route, it is the local interface from a connected network.

you can use default route commad like this.

## IPv6 route ::/0 2001:1111::1

## traceroute ipv6 2001:1111::1

Implementing RIP IPv6

## IPv6 unicast-routing

## RIP will be configured on the interface ###

## IPv6 RIP < TAG > enable

## the TAG identify the process ##

## Show IPV6 protocol

- IPv6 route pro " Connected "
- IPv6 route pro " static "
- IPv6 route pro " RIP ABCD" #### this will show up if you ran IPV6 router RIP on golbal Config, to remove do this:

## No IPv6 router RIP ABCD will remove this process.....

 

Implementing OSPF IPv6

1 ## IPv6 Unicast-routing

2 ## Interface ## IPv6 OSPF < Procees ID > area < Area >

3 ## Global Config # IPv6 router OSPF (process ID)

4 ## Router ## Router ID < ID >

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IPv6 Transition Strategies

  1. Dual Stack
  2. Tunneling (6 to 4 and 4 to 6)
  3. NAT protocal Translation ( NAT-PT)

Dual

 

 

 

 

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EIGRP C.

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OSPF C

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